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A jury is a body of lay men and women randomly selected to determine facts and to provide a decision in a legal proceeding. Such a body traditionally consists of 12 people and is called a petit jury or trial jury. The exact origin of the jury system is not known; various sources have attributed it to different European peoples who at an early period developed similar methods of trial. The jury is probably of Frankish origin, beginning with inquisition, which had an accusatory and interrogatory function. Trial by jury was brought to England by the Normans in 1066.
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In Britain, the United States and many other English-speaking countries, the law of Habeas Corpus guarantees that nobody can be held in prison without trial. Habeas Corpus became a law because of a wild party held in 1621 at the London home of a notoriously rowdy lady, Alice Robinson. When a constable appeared and asked her and her guests to quiet down, Mrs. Robinson

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In 1981 Marianne Bachmeir, from Lubeck, West Germany, was in court watching the trial of Klaus Grabowski, who had murdered her 7 year-old daughter. Grabowski had a history of attacking children. During the trial, Frau Bachmeir pulled a Beretta 22 pistol from her handbag and fired eight bullets, six of which hit Grabowski, killing him. The defence said she had bought the pistol with the intention of committing suicide, but when she saw Grabowski in court she drew the pistol and pulled the trigger.
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Once M Ps take their seats in parliament their most important job is to make legislation. Every year, parliament passes about a hundred laws directly, by making Acts of Parliament.
Как только депутаты занимают свои места в парламенте, их наиболее важной задачей становится разработка законодательства. Каждый год парламент принимает около ста законов, непосредственно, путем законов, принятых парламентом.

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Ordeal is a judgement of the truth of some claim or accusation by various means based on the belief that the outcome will reflect the .judgement of supernatural powers and that these powers will ensure the triumph of right. Although fatal consequences often attend an ordeal, ils purpose is not punitive. The main types of ordeal are ordeals by divination, physical test, llnd battle. A Burmese ordeal by divination involves two parties being furnished with candles of equal size and lighted simultaneously
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The powers of a police officer in England and Wales to stop and search, arrest and place a person under detention are contained in the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. The legislation and the code of p,ractice set out the powers and responsibilities of officers in the investigation of offences, and the rights of citizens. An officer is liable to disciplinary proceedings if he or she fails to comply with any provision of the codes, and evidence obtained in breach of the codes may be ruled inadmissible in court. The code must be readily available in all police stations for consultation by police officers, detained people and members of the public.

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At first the new police force. encountered little cooperation from the public, and when Scotland Yard stationed its first plainclothes police agents on duty in 1842, there was a public outcry against these 'spies' The police force had gradually won the trust of the London public by the time Scotland Yard set up its Criminal Investigation Department (CID) in 1878. The CID was a small force of plainclothes detectives who gathered information on criminal activities. The CID was subsequently built up into the efficient investigative force that it now constitutes.
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Solon, the Athenian statesman, is known as one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece . He ended exclusive aristocratic control of the government, substituted a system of control by the wealthy, and introduced a new and more humane law code. He was also a noted poet. Unfortunately it was not until the 5th century B.C. that accounts of his life and works began to be put together, mostly on the evidence of his poems and his law code. Although certain details have a legendary ring, the main features of his story seem to be reliable.

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The Bill of Rights (1689) is one of the basic instruments of the British constitution, the result of the long 17th-century struggle between the Stuart kings and the English people and Parliament. The Bill of Rights provided the foundation on which the government rested after the Revolution of 1688. The Revolution settlement made monarchy clearly conditional on the will of Parliament and provided a freedom from arbitrary
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Various correctional approaches developed in the wake of causation theories. The old theological and moralistic theories encouraged punishment as retribution by society for evil. This attitude, indeed, still exists. The 19th-century British jurist and philosopher Jeremy Bentham tried to make the punishment more precisely fit the crime. Bentham believed that pleasure could be measured against pain in all areas of human choice and conduct and that human happiness could be attained through such hedonic calculus.

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Различные исправительные подходы развивались вслед за теориями причинной обусловленности. Старые теологические и моралистические теории поощряли наказание как возмездие обществом зла. Это отношение, действительно, все еще существует. 19-ое столетие британский юрист и философ Джереми Бентам пробовали заставить наказание более точно соответствовать преступлению. Бентам полагал, что удовольствие могло быть измерено против боли во всех областях...
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The laws of much of continental Europe (particularly France), 0f Quebec in Canada, and of much of Latin America - along with the civil laws of Louisiana - owe their modern form largely to the work of a man who never even studied law. Napoleon Bonaparte, the Corsican soldier who became emperor of France after the French Revolution, established in 1800 five commissions to refine and organise the diverse legal systems of France.

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For Americans, serving jury duty has always been a dreaded chore. There is plenty of history behind this fear. In colonial days, jurors were locked in a small room with no ventilation and were denied food and water in an attempt to inspire a quick verdict. If the jurors returned with the wrong decisions, they too were charged with a crime. As more and more laws were passed, the rules of evidence expanded and trials became longer, which resulted in more technical and increasingly boring hours for jurors. Trial lawyers have tried 10 change the boredom by replacing endless hours
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Trial by jury is an ancient and important feature of English justice. Although it has declined in ______ _____ (except for libel and fraud), it is the main element in criminal trials in the crown court. Jury membership was once linked to the ______ _____ which resulted in male and middle-class dominance. But now most categories of British residents are obliged to _________ jury service when summoned. Before the start of a criminal trial in the crown court, 12 jurors arc, chosen from a list of some 30 names ______selected from local electoral registers. They listen to the _______ at the trial and give their verdict on the facts, after having been isolated in a separate room for their deliberations.

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The ancient Greeks were among the first to develop a concept of aw that separated everyday law from religious beliefs. Before the Greeks :nost civilizations attributed their laws to their gods or goddesses, Instead, :be Greeks believed that laws were made by the people for the people. In the seventh century B.C., Draco* drew up Greece's first comprehensive written code of laws. Under Draco's code death was the punishment for most offences.
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At the heart of the English system are two principles of government­ limited government and representative government. The idea that government was not all-powerful first appeared in the Magna Carta*, or Great Charter, that King John** signed in 1215 under the threat of civil war. Earlier kings of England had issued charters, making promises to their barons. But these were granted by, not exacted from the king and were very generally phrased. Later the tension between the Kings and the nobility increased.

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The British police officer is a well-known figure to anyone who has visited Britain or who has seen British films. Policemen are to be seen in towns and cities keeping law and order, either walking in pairs down the streets ("walking the beat") or driving specially marked police cars. Once known as 'panda cars' because of their distinctive markings, these are now often jokingly referred to as 'jam sandwiches' because of the pink - fluorescent stripe running horizontally around the bodywork.
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The forensic science service (fss) serves the administration of justice in England and wales by providing scientific support in the investigation of crime, and by giving evidence to courts. Its customers include the police, the crown prosecution service, coroners and defense solicitors. In february 1995 the uk government announced that the fss would ,merge with the metropolitan police forensic science laboratory to form a single agency serving all police forces in england and wales through seven regional operational laboratories.

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What is the purpose of punishment? One purpose is obviously to reform the offender, to correct the offender's moral attitudes and antisocial behaviour and to rehabilitate him or her, which means to assist the offender to return to normal life as a useful member of the community. Punishment can also be seen as a deterrent because it warns other people of what will happen if they
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Capital punishment is а legal infliction of the death penalty; in modern law, corporal punishment in its most severe form. The usual. alternative to the death penalty is long-term or life imprisonment. The earliest historical records contain evidence of capital punishment: It was mentioned in the Code of Hammurabi. The Bible prescribed death as the penalty for more than 30 different crimes, ranging from murder· fornication. The Draconian Code of ancient Greece imposed capital punishment for every offence.