The Magna Carta
At the heart of the English system are two principles of government limited government and representative government. The idea that government was not all-powerful first appeared in the Magna Carta*, or Great Charter, that King John** signed in 1215 under the threat of civil war. Earlier kings of England had issued charters, making promises to their barons. But these were granted by, not exacted from the king and were very generally phrased. Later the tension between the Kings and the nobility increased. Since 1199 John's barons had to be promised their rights. It is, therefore, not surprising that Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, directed baronial unrest into a demand for a solemn grant of liberties by the king. The document known as the Articles of the Barons was at last agreed upon and became the text from which the final version of the charter was drafted and sealed by John on June 15, 1215.
The Magna Carta established the principle of limited
government, in which the power of the monarch, or government, was limited, not absolute. This document provided for protection against unjust punishment and the loss of life, liberty, and property except according to law. It stipulated that no citizen could be punished or kept in prison without a fair trial. Under the Magna Carta, the king agreed that certain taxes could not be levied without popular consent
Although the Magna Carta was originally intended to protect aristocracy and not the ordinary citizens, it came in time to be regarded as a cornerstone of British liberties. It is one of the oldest written constitutional papers.
Великая хартия вольностей
В основе английской системы - два принципа правительства, ограничил правительство и представительное правление. Идея, что правительство не было всесильно первое, казалась в Великой хартии вольностей *, или Большом Чартере(Уставе), тот Король Джон ** подписанной в 1215
чтобы быть расцененным как краеугольный камень британских привилегий. Это - одна из самых старых письменных конституционных бумаг(газет).